Wireless Technology plays a very big role in our day to day life. Other than communication, wireless technology has become an essential part of our daily activities. The transmission of data or information from one place to another wirelessly is referred to as wireless communication.
This provides an exchange of data without any conductor through RF and radio signals. The information is transmitted across the devices over some meters to hundreds of kilometers through well-defined channels.
Bluetooth technology is named after Harald Bluetooth, a Danish King who managed to consolidate Denmark and a part of Norway in the 1900s. the choice for the name of this technology is a manifestation of how influential and central the companies from this region are to the Telecommunications industry. Bluetooth is a Networking technology that does not rely on user control or large amounts of power.
By keeping the transmission power to an extremely low setting (1 milliwatt), Bluetooth is ideal for mobile battery-operated devices . Moreover , Bluetooth does not rely on the user since it can automatically detect and communicate with other bluetooth devices without any user input.
Bluetooth technology relies on two things, a radio frequency technology and the protocol software enabling it to transmit data to other devices. Bluetooth-capable devices can transmit data to other devices, not within the line of sight of the user. It also enables different devices to communicate using certain rules such as the amount of data that will be sent, the type of communication between the devices and radiofrequency or frequencies this communication will take place.
these protocols ensure that Bluetooth devices experience the lease amount of interference from other Bluetooth capable objects while communicating with each other.
Bluetooth Weakness Include :
The bluetooth challenge-response key generation is weak. this scheme may use a static number or a number for a period of time, which can reduce the effectiveness of the authentication. Bluetooth’s challenge-response is simplistic. A one-way challenge for authentication is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks. mutual authentication via user verification should be used. The keys used by bluetooth are weak. the initialization key needs to be more robust and the unit key is a public-generated key that can be reused. a set of keys should be used instead.
the master key is shared between bluetooth connections. the key is a broadcast and should have a better scheme than what is used.
the encryption algorithm scheme utilized in bluetooth uses a single algorithm and allows repeat authentication. a more robust method that limits authentication and increases the encryption should be used.Bluetooth implementations normally limit the PIN number range. a PIN number is usually only four digits and the scalability for large environments is difficult.
Wi-fi is a way of getting broadband internet without wires. Wi-fi allows you to connect several computers at once, anywhere in the house or if you have a laptop, to even use your computers in the garden. you do not need to install extra phone lines or cables.
wi-fi is widely installed in cafes, airports and many other public buildings. If you have seen someone at your local coffee shop surfing the internet on a laptop computer, they are probably using a wi-fi network.
wi-fi creates a network in your home or office – a little zone where computers can get broadband internet. it uses radio waves, juist like TV or mobile phones. you may sometimes hear this zone referred to as a WLAN (wireless local area network).
a device called a wireless transmitter receives information from the internet via your broadband connection. the transmitter converts the information into a radio signal and sens it. you could think of the transmitter converts the information into a radio signal and sends it.
you could think of the transmitter as a mini radio station, broadcasting signals sent from the internet. the’audience‘ for these transmissions is the computer (or computer as more than one can connect at the same time) which receives the radio signal via something called a wireless adapter.
the whole process, meanwhile, works in reverse, with the computer sending information to the wireless transmitter. it then converts them and sends them via your broadband connection.
the two driving forces of modern internet are broadband and wireless. the wiMax standard combines the two, delivering high-speed broadband internet access over a wireless connection. because it can be used over relatively long distances, it is an effective “last mile” solution for delivering Broadband to the home and for creating wireless “Hotspots” in places like airports, College campus and small communities.
the so-called “last-mile” of broadband is the most expensive and most expensive and most difficult for broadband providers and WiMAX provides an easy solution. although it is a wireless technology, unlike some other wireless technologies, it doesn’t require a direct line of sight between the source and endpoint and it has a service range of 50 kilometers. it provides a shared data rate of up to 70 Mbps, which is enough to service up to a thousand homes with high-speed access.
WiMAX offers some advantages over wiFi , a similar wireless technology, in that it offers a greater range and is more bandwidth-efficient. ultimately, wiMax may be used to provide connectivity to entire cities and may be incorporated into laptops to give users an added measure of mobility.
wiMax requires a tower, similar to a cell phones tower , which is connected to the internet using a standard wired high-speed connection, such as a T3 line . but as opposed to a traditional internet service provider, which divides that bandwidth among customers via wire, it uses a microwave link to establish a connection.
because WiMAX does not depend on cables to connect each endpoint, deploying wiMax to an entire high-rise, community or campus can be done in a matter of a couple days, saving significant amounts of manpower.
The global positioning system (gPS) is a satellite-bases navigation system made up of a network of number of satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for military applications, but in the 1980s , the government made the system available for civilian use.
GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. there are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS.
gPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user’s exact location. essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with time it was received, the time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is .
now, with distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map.
a gPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position and Track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the user’s 3D position.
once the user’s position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as Speed, Bearing, Track, Trip distance, Distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.
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