Different Types of Communication Devices

Repeater

a repeater connects two segments of your network cable. It retimes and regenerates the signals to proper amplitudes and sends them to the other segments. When talking about, ethernet topology, you are probably talking about using a hub as a repeater.

repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a propagation delay which can affect network communication when there are several repeaters in a row. many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row. repeaters work only at the physical layer of the OSI network model.

Bridge

a bridge is a device that connects one local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol (for Example, ethernet or token ring). if a data unit on one LAN is intended for a destination on an interconnected LAN, the bridge forwards the data unit to that LAN; Otherwise, it passes it along on the same LAN.

A bridge usually offers only one path to a given interconnected LAN. a Router connects a network to one or more other networks that are usually part of a wide area network (wAN) And may offer a number of paths out to destinations on those networks.

a router, therefore, need to have more information than a bridge about the interconnected networks. It consults a routing table for this information. Since a given outgoing data unit or packet from a computer may be intended for an address on the local network, on an interconnected LAN, or the wide-area network, it makes sense to have a single unit that examines all data units and forwards them appropriately.

Router

in packet-switched networks such as the internet, a router is a device or, in some cases, software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet based on its the current understanding of the state of the networks.

it is connected to. A router is located at any gateway including point-of-presence on the internet. a router is often included as part of a network switch.

a router may create or maintain a table of the available routes and their conditions and use this information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a given packet. Typically, a packet may travel through a number of network points with routers before arriving at its destination. Routing is a function associated with the network layer in the standard model of network programming, the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. A layer-3 switch that can perform routing functions.

an edge router is a router that interfaces with an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network. a router is a network bridge combined with a router. for home and business computer users who have high-speed internet connections such as cable, satellite, or DSL, a router can act as a hardware firewall. This is true even if the home or business has only one computer. Many engineers believe that the use of a router provides better protection against hacking than a software firewall because no computer internet protocol address is directly exposed to the internet.

This makes port scans essentially impossible. in addition, a router does not consume computer resources as a software firewall doe. commercially manufactured routers are easy to install, reasonably priced, and available for hard-wired or wireless networks.

Gateway

a gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another. on the internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host ( end-point) node. Both the computers of internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. the provider (ISP) are gateway nodes.

in the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is often associated with both a router, which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway for a given packet.

Hub

A network hub is a device which is used to connect multiple twisted pair or fiber optic. Ethernet devices together and makes them a single network segment. hubs work at the physical layer i.e. layer 1 of the OSI model. Therefore, this device is a form of the multi-port repeater. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection of a collision.

hubs also often come with a BNC or AUI connector to allow connection to legacy 10BASE5 network, segments. In the present scenario, network switches are replacing hubs but hubs are still seen in older installations and more specialized applications.

Server

a server is itself a computer that provides services or resources to other computer connected with it by some networking mechanism. It is designated for running a specific server application. A computer that is designated for only one server application is often named for that application.

Server applications can be divided among server computers over an extreme range, depending upon the workload. every server Application can run concurrently on a single computer under light loading, but multiple server computers may be required for each application under a heavy load. under medium loading, it is common to use one server computers per server application, in order to limit the amount of damage caused by the failure of any single server computer or security breach of any single server application.

any server computer can also be used as a workstation, but it is avoided in practice, again to contain risk.

Switch

when we have multiple devices, we face a problem to connect them to make one-on-one communication possible. the number and length of the links required for connecting them need too much infrastructure. The majority of the links remain idle most of the time. A network switch is a computer networking device that connects network segments.

a switched network consists of a series of interlinked nodes called switches. a switch may be a hardware or a software device capable of creating temporary connection between two or more devices linked to the switch but not to each other.

Lan Card

a local area network card is used to provide access to computers and servers on the network. it works by exchanging signals with a router, which transmits the signals over a physically wired line.

a lan card communicates with the router. the computer converts data into binary form and sends it to the LAN card, which in turn broadcasts the signal to be picked up by the router. the router sends the information on in the form of packets of information and bundles information for return to the computer via the LAN card in the same way.

Modem

The word MODEM consists of MO+dEM, mO STANDS OF modulator, and DEM for DEModulator. The conversion of digital signals is called modulation and the reverse process is called demodulation. Modems are connected both at sending and receiving ends. the modulator of the sender changes the big pattern to analog signals.

The modem is connected between a terminal and a telephone line. the signal is sent through a telephone line and the modem at the receiving end demodulates the wave pattern into digital signals and these signals are converted into output or stored in the computer.

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